Steel structures in fire
Steel structures in fire
Research into a number of aspects of structural fire engineering has been conducted within the steel structures group. These areas include:
- Assessment of the rate of temperature development in structural stainless steel cross-sections exposed to fire 
- Determination of the degradation of material strength and stiffness at elevated temperatures for cold-formed steel and stainless steel flat products  and rebar  based on isothermal and anisothermal material testing
- Constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures for stainless steel flat products  and rebar 
- Testing and finite element simulation of stainless steel columns and beams at elevated temperatures , including consideration of the influence of end restraint from surrounding members 
- Examination of the fire performance of structural elements heated on three sides, representing their behaviour in wall systems 
- Testing and numerical modelling to assess the fire  and post-fire [9-11] performance of concrete-filled structural hollow sections, and the development of design rules
 Gardner, L. and Ng, K. T. (2006). Temperature development in structural stainless steel sections exposed to fire. Fire Safety Journal. 41(3), 185-203.
 McCann, F., Gardner, L. and Kirk, S. (2015). Elevated temperature material properties of cold-formed steel hollow sections. Thin-Walled Structures. 90, 84-94.
 Gardner, L., Insausti, A., Ng, K. T. and Ashraf, M. (2010). Elevated temperature material properties of stainless steel alloys. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 66(5), 634-647.
 Gardner, L., Bu, Y., Francis, P., Baddoo, N. R., Cashell, K. A. and McCann, F. (2016). Elevated temperature material properties of stainless steel reinforcing bar. Construction and Building Materials. 114, 977-997.
 Ng, K. T. and Gardner, L. (2007). Buckling of stainless steel columns and beams in fire. Engineering Structures. 29(5), 717-730.
 Gardner, L. (2007). Stainless steel structures in fire. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings. 160(3), 129-138.
 Yang, H., Lui, F. and Gardner, L. (2013). Performance of concrete-filled RHS columns exposed to fire on 3 sides. Engineering Structures. 56, 1986-2004.
 Espinos, A., Gardner, L., Romero, M. L. and Hospitaler, A. (2011). Fire behaviour of concrete filled elliptical steel columns. Thin-Walled Structures. 49(2), 239-255.
 Liu, F., Gardner, L. and Yang, H. (2014). Post-fire behaviour of reinforced concrete stub columns confined by circular steel tubes. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 102, 82-103.
 Yang, H., Liu, F., and Gardner, L. (2015). Post-fire behaviour of slender reinforced concrete columns confined by circular steel tubes. Thin-Walled Structures. 87, 12-29.
 Liu, F., Yang, H. and Gardner, L. (2016). Post-fire behaviour of eccentrically loaded reinforced concrete columns confined by circular steel tubes. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 122, 495-510.