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    Arridge CS, Eastwood JP, Jackman CM, Poh G-K, Slavin JA, Thomsen MF, Andre N, Jia X, Kidder A, Lamy L, Radioti A, Reisenfeld DB, Sergis N, Volwerk M, Walsh AP, Zarka P, Coates AJ, Dougherty MKet al., 2016,

    Cassini in situ observations of long-duration magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail

    , NATURE PHYSICS, Vol: 12, Pages: 268-271, ISSN: 1745-2473
    Badman SV, Provan G, Bunce EJ, Mitchell DG, Melin H, Cowley SWH, Radioti A, Kurth WS, Pryor WR, Nichols JD, Jinks SL, Stallard TS, Brown RH, Baines KH, Dougherty MKet al., 2016,

    Saturn's auroral morphology and field-aligned currents during a solar wind compression

    , ICARUS, Vol: 263, Pages: 83-93, ISSN: 0019-1035
    Kurth WS, Hospodarsky GB, Gurnett DA, Lamy L, Dougherty MK, Nichols J, Bunce EJ, Pryor W, Baines K, Stallard T, Melin H, Crary FJet al., 2016,

    Saturn kilometric radiation intensities during the Saturn auroral campaign of 2013

    , ICARUS, Vol: 263, Pages: 2-9, ISSN: 0019-1035
    Mangeon S, Field R, Fromm M, McHugh C, Voulgarakis Aet al., 2016,

    Satellite versus ground-based estimates of burned area: A comparison between MODIS based burned area and fire agency reports over North America in 2007

    , The Anthropocene Review, Vol: 3, Pages: 76-92, ISSN: 2053-0196
    Parfitt R, Czaja A, 2016,

    On the contribution of synoptic transients to the mean atmospheric state in the Gulf Stream region

    Phan TD, Shay MA, Eastwood JP, Angelopoulos V, Oieroset M, Oka M, Fujimoto Met al., 2016,

    Establishing the Context for Reconnection Diffusion Region Encounters and Strategies for the Capture and Transmission of Diffusion Region Burst Data by MMS

    , Space Science Reviews, Vol: 199, Pages: 631-650, ISSN: 0038-6308

    © 2015, The Author(s).This paper describes the efforts of our Inter-Disciplinary Scientist (IDS) team to (a) establish the large-scale context for reconnection diffusion region encounters by MMS at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, including the distinction between X-line and O-line encounters, that would help the identification of diffusion regions in spacecraft data, and (b) devise possible strategies that can be used by MMS to capture and transmit burst data associated with diffusion region candidates. At the magnetopause we suggest the strategy of transmitting burst data from all magnetopause crossings so that no magnetopause reconnection diffusion regions encountered by the spacecraft will be missed. The strategy is made possible by the MMS mass memory and downlink budget. In the magnetotail, it is estimated that MMS will be able to transmit burst data for all diffusion regions, all reconnection jet fronts (a.k.a. dipolarization fronts) and separatrix encounters, but less than 50 % of reconnection exhausts encountered by the spacecraft. We also discuss automated burst trigger schemes that could capture various reconnection-related phenomena. The identification of candidate diffusion region encounters by the burst trigger schemes will be verified and improved by a Scientist-In-The-Loop (SITL). With the knowledge of the properties of the region surrounding the diffusion region and the combination of automated burst triggers and further optimization by the SITL, MMS should be able to capture most diffusion regions it encounters.

    Vanniere B, Czaja A, Dacre H, Woollings T, Parfitt Ret al., 2016,

    A potential vorticity signature for the cold sector of winter extratropical cyclones

    Archer MO, Horbury TS, Brown P, Eastwood JP, Oddy TM, Whiteside BJ, Sample JGet al., 2015,

    The MAGIC of CINEMA: first in-flight science results from a miniaturised anisotropic magnetoresistive magnetometer

    , ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, Vol: 33, Pages: 725-735, ISSN: 0992-7689
    Auster H-U, Apathy I, Berghofer G, Fornacon K-H, Remizov A, Carr C, Guttler C, Haerendel G, Heinisch P, Hercik D, Hilchenbach M, Kuhrt E, Magnes W, Motschmann U, Richter I, Russell CT, Przyklenk A, Schwingenschuh K, Sierks H, Glassmeier K-Het al., 2015,

    The nonmagnetic nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    , Science, Vol: 349, Pages: aaa5102-aaa5102, ISSN: 0036-8075
    Balikhin MA, Shprits YY, Walker SN, Chen L, Cornilleau-Wehrlin N, Dandouras I, Santolik O, Carr C, Yearby KH, Weiss Bet al., 2015,

    Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise.

    , Nature Communications, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2041-1723

    A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as 'equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes 'ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations.

    Balogh A, Bykov A, Eastwood J, Kaastra Jet al., 2015,

    Multi-scale Structure Formation and Dynamics in Cosmic Plasmas

    , SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS, Vol: 188, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0038-6308
    Beth A, Garnier P, Toublanc D, Dandouras I, Mazelle Cet al., 2015,

    Theory for planetary exospheres: II. Radiation pressure effect on exospheric density profiles

    , Icarus, ISSN: 0019-1035

    © 2015 The Authors.The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with an Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989). In this second part of our work, we present here the density profiles of atomic Hydrogen in planetary exospheres subject to the radiation pressure. We first provide the altitude profiles of ballistic particles (the dominant exospheric population in most cases), which exhibit strong asymmetries that explain the known geotail phenomenon at Earth. The radiation pressure strongly enhances the densities compared with the pure gravity case (i.e. the Chamberlain profiles), in particular at noon and midnight. We finally show the existence of an exopause that appears naturally as the external limit for bounded particles, above which all particles are escaping.

    Beth A, Garnier P, Toublanc D, Dandouras I, Mazelle Cet al., 2015,

    Theory for planetary exospheres: I. Radiation pressure effect on dynamical trajectories

    , Icarus, ISSN: 0019-1035

    © 2015 The Authors.The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with an Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalisation of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (Bishop, J., Chamberlian, J.W. [1989]. Icarus 81, 145-163). In this first paper, we present the complete solutions of particles trajectories, which are not conics, under the influence of the solar radiation pressure with some assumptions. This problem is similar to the classical Stark problem (Stark, J. [1914]. Ann. Phys. 348, 965-982). This problem was largely tackled in the literature and more specifically, recently by Lantoine and Russell (Lantoine, G., Russell, R.P. [2011]. Celest. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 109, 333-366) and by Biscani and Izzo (Biscani, F., Izzo, D. [2014]. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 439, 810-822) as we will discuss in this paper. We give here the full set of solutions for the motion of a particle (in our case for an atom or a molecule), i.e. the space coordinates and the time solution for bounded and unbounded trajectories in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. We thus provide here the complete set of solutions for this so-call Stark effect (Stark, J. [1914]. Ann. Phys. 348, 965-982) in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (Jacobi, C.G.J. [1829]. Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum. Sumtibus fratrum), which may be used to model the trajectories of particles in planetary exospheres.

    Brindley H, Bantges R, Russell J, Murray J, Dancel C, Belotti C, Harries Jet al., 2015,

    Spectral Signatures of Earth's Climate Variability over 5 Years from IASI

    , JOURNAL OF CLIMATE, Vol: 28, Pages: 1649-1660, ISSN: 0894-8755
    Czaja A, Marshall J, 2015,

    Why is there net surface heating over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?

    , OCEAN DYNAMICS, Vol: 65, Pages: 751-760, ISSN: 1616-7341
    Dunlop MW, Yang J-Y, Yang Y-Y, Xiong C, Lühr H, Bogdanova YV, Shen C, Olsen N, Zhang Q-H, Cao J-B, Fu H-S, Liu W-L, Carr CM, Ritter P, Masson A, Haagmans Ret al., 2015,

    Simultaneous field-aligned currents at Swarm and Cluster satellites

    , Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 42, Pages: 3683-3691, ISSN: 1944-8007

    We show for the first time, with direct, multispacecraft calculations of electric current density, and other methods, matched signatures of field-aligned currents (FACs) sampled simultaneously near the ionosphere at low (~500 km altitude) orbit and in the magnetosphere at medium (~2.5 RE altitude) orbits using a particular Swarm and Cluster conjunction. The Cluster signatures are interpreted and ordered through joint mapping of the ground/magnetospheric footprints and estimation of the auroral zone boundaries (taken as indication of the boundaries of Region 1 and Region 2 currents). We find clear evidence of both small-scale and large-scale FACs and clear matching of the behavior and structure of the large-scale currents at both Cluster and Swarm. The methodology is made possible through the joint operations of Cluster and Swarm, which contain, in the first several months of Swarm operations, a number of close three-spacecraft configurations.

    Eastwood JP, Goldman MV, Hietala H, Newman DL, Mistry R, Lapenta Get al., 2015,

    Ion reflection and acceleration near magnetotail dipolarization fronts associated with magnetic reconnection

    , JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 120, Pages: 511-525, ISSN: 2169-9380
    Eastwood JP, Hietala H, Toth G, Phan TD, Fujimoto Met al., 2015,

    What Controls the Structure and Dynamics of Earth's Magnetosphere?

    , SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS, Vol: 188, Pages: 251-286, ISSN: 0038-6308
    Eastwood JP, Kataria DO, McInnes CR, Barnes NC, Mulligan Pet al., 2015,


    , WEATHER, Vol: 70, Pages: 27-30, ISSN: 0043-1656
    Edberg NJT, Eriksson AI, Odelstad E, Henri P, Lebreton J-P, Gasc S, Rubin M, Andre M, Gill R, Johansson EPG, Johansson F, Vigren E, Wahlund JE, Carr CM, Cupido E, Glassmeier K-H, Goldstein R, Koenders C, Mandt K, Nemeth Z, Nilsson H, Richter I, Wieser GS, Szego K, Volwerk Met al., 2015,

    Spatial distribution of low-energy plasma around comet 67P/CG from Rosetta measurements

    , GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 42, Pages: 4263-4269, ISSN: 0094-8276
    Eriksson S, Lapenta G, Newman DL, Phan TD, Gosling JT, Lavraud B, Khotyaintsev YV, Carr CM, Markidis S, Goldman MVet al., 2015,


    , ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 805, ISSN: 0004-637X
    Hietala H, Drake JF, Phan TD, Eastwood JP, McFadden JPet al., 2015,

    Ion temperature anisotropy across a magnetotail reconnection jet

    , GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 42, Pages: 7239-7247, ISSN: 0094-8276
    Hu F, Sun J, Brindley HE, Liang X, Lucyszyn Set al., 2015,

    Systems Analysis for Thermal Infrared 'THz Torch' Applications

    , Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Vol: 36, Pages: 474-495, ISSN: 1866-6892

    The ‘THz Torch’ concept was recently introduced by the authors for providing secure wireless communications over short distances within the thermal infrared (10-100 THz). Unlike conventional systems, thermal infrared can exploit front-end thermodynamics with engineered blackbody radiation. For the first time, a detailed power link budget analysis is given for this new form of wireless link. The mathematical modeling of a short end-to-end link is provided, which integrates thermodynamics into conventional signal and noise power analysis. As expected from the Friis formula for noise, it is found that the noise contribution from the pyroelectric detector dominates intrinsic noise. From output signal and noise voltage measurements, experimental values for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are obtained and compared with calculated predictions. As with conventional communications systems, it is shown for the first time that the measured SNR and measured bit error rate found with this thermodynamics-based system resembles classical empirical models. Our system analysis can serve as an invaluable tool for the development of thermal infrared systems, accurately characterizing each individual channel and, thus, enables the performance of multi-channel ‘THz Torch’ systems to be optimized.

    Klueser L, Banks JR, Martynenko D, Bergemann C, Brindley HE, Holzer-Popp Tet al., 2015,

    Information content of space-borne hyperspectral infrared observations with respect to mineral dust properties

    , REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 156, Pages: 294-309, ISSN: 0034-4257
    Leitner S, Valavanoglou A, Brown P, Hagen C, Magnes W, Whiteside BJ, Carr CM, Delva M, Baumjohann Wet al., 2015,

    Design of the Magnetoresistive Magnetometer for ESA's SOSMAG Project

    Mistry R, Eastwood JP, Hietala H, 2015,

    Detection of small-scale folds at a solar wind reconnection exhaust

    , JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol: 120, Pages: 30-42, ISSN: 2169-9380
    Nazarenko L, Schmidt GA, Miller RL, Tausnev N, Kelley M, Ruedy R, Russell GL, Aleinov I, Bauer M, Bauer S, Bleck R, Canuto V, Cheng Y, Clune TL, Del Genio AD, Faluvegi G, Hansen JE, Healy RJ, Kiang NY, Koch D, Lacis AA, LeGrande AN, Lerner J, Lo KK, Menon S, Oinas V, Perlwitz J, Puma MJ, Rind D, Romanou A, Sato M, Shindell DT, Sun S, Tsigaridis K, Unger N, Voulgarakis A, Yao M-S, Zhang Jet al., 2015,

    Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    , JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MODELING EARTH SYSTEMS, Vol: 7, Pages: 244-267, ISSN: 1942-2466
    Nilsson H, Wieser GS, Behar E, Wedlund CS, Gunell H, Yamauchi M, Lundin R, Barabash S, Wieser M, Carr C, Cupido E, Burch JL, Fedorov A, Sauvaud J-A, Koskinen H, Kallio E, Lebreton J-P, Eriksson A, Edberg N, Goldstein R, Henri P, Koenders C, Mokashi P, Nemeth Z, Richter I, Szego K, Volwerk M, Vallat C, Rubin Met al., 2015,

    Birth of a comet magnetosphere: A spring of water ions

    , SCIENCE, Vol: 347, ISSN: 0036-8075
    Nilsson H, Wieser GS, Behar E, Wedlund CS, Kallio E, Gunell H, Edberg NJT, Eriksson AI, Yamauchi M, Koenders C, Wieser M, Lundin R, Barabash S, Mandt K, Burch JL, Goldstein R, Mokashi P, Carr C, Cupido E, Fox PT, Szego K, Nemeth Z, Fedorovn A, Sauvaud J-A, Koskinen H, Richter I, Lebreton J-P, Henri P, Volwerk M, Vallat C, Geiger Bet al., 2015,

    Evolution of the ion environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    , ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, Vol: 583, ISSN: 1432-0746
    O'Reilly CH, Czaja A, 2015,

    The response of the Pacific storm track and atmospheric circulation to Kuroshio Extension variability


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