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    Bonner TJ, Newell N, Karunaratne A, Pullen AD, Amis AA, Bull AMJ, Masouros SDet al., 2015,

    Strain-rate sensitivity of the lateral collateral ligament of the knee

    Cleather DJ, Southgate DFL, Bull AM, 2015,

    The role of the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in closed chain lower limb extension

    , JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 365, Pages: 217-225, ISSN: 0022-5193
    Sabharwal S, Patel NK, Bull AM, Reilly Pet al., 2015,

    Surgical interventions for anterior shoulder instability in rugby players: A systematic review.

    , World J Orthop, Vol: 6, Pages: 400-408

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the evidence-based literature on surgical treatment interventions for elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar using the following search terms: "rugby" and "shoulder" in combination with "instability" or "dislocation". All articles published from inception of the included data sources to January 1(st) 2014 that evaluated surgical treatment of elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability were examined. RESULTS: Only five studies were found that met the eligibility criteria. A total of 379 shoulders in 376 elite rugby union and league players were included. All the studies were retrospective cohort or case series studies. The mean Coleman Methodological Score for the 5 studies was 47.4 (poor). Owing to heterogeneity amongst the studies, quantitative synthesis was not possible, however a detailed qualitative synthesis is reported. The overall recurrence rate of instability after surgery was 8.7%, and the mean return to competitive play, where reported, was 13 mo. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic stabilization has been performed successfully in acute anterior instability and there is a preference for open Latarjet-type procedures when instability is associated with osseous defects.

    Shaheen AF, Bull AMJ, Alexander CM, 2015,

    Rigid and Elastic taping changes scapular kinematics and pain in subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome; an experimental study

    Buckeridge EM, Bull AMJ, McGregor AH, 2014,

    Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance

    , Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, Vol: 25, Pages: e176-e183, ISSN: 0905-7188
    Cleather DJ, Southgate DFL, Bull AMJ, 2014,

    On the Role of the Patella, ACL and Joint Contact Forces in the Extension of the Knee

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1932-6203
    Eftaxiopoulou T, Macdonald W, Britzman D, Bull AMet al., 2014,

    Gait compensations in rats after a temporary nerve palsy quantified using temporo-spatial and kinematic parameters.

    , J Neurosci Methods, Vol: 232, Pages: 16-23

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to test a method for measuring the gait of rats with sufficient sensitivity to detect subtle locomotor changes due to pathology, injury and recovery. METHOD: The gait of female Sprague-Dawley rats was assessed using an optical motion tracking system and the DigiGait™ imaging system during normal locomotion, shortly after temporary nerve block to the left hind limb and after full recovery. RESULTS: The effect of low treadmill speeds (10-30 cm/s) was initially investigated. Significant changes were detected in the spatiotemporal gait parameters, consistent with those previously reported. The overall ranges of motion in the hip, knee and ankle joints were 37.5° (±7.1°), 50.2° (±9.4°) and 61.6° (±9.1°) and did not appear to change with speed, indicating that for low speed variations, kinematic comparisons across speeds may be possible. Following the induction of a temporary sciatic nerve block, the range of motion of the left ankle and knee during swing decreased by 23° and 33°, respectively (p<0.05). A compensatory change of a greater range of motion at the hip was noted in the contralateral limb (p<0.01). 90 min post injection, most of the gait parameters had returned to normal, however, minor walking deficits were still present. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): Discriminant analysis showed that a combination of dynamic and kinematic parameters provides a more robust method for the classification of gait changes. CONCLUSIONS: This more detailed method, employing both dynamic analysis and joint kinematics simultaneously, was found to be a reliable approach for the quantification of gait in rats.

    Grigoriadis G, Newell N, Masouros SD, Bull AMJet al., 2014,

    The material properties of the human heel fat pad across strain-rates: An inverse finite element approach

    , Pages: 478-479
    Gupte CM, Shaerf DA, Sandison A, Bull AM, Amis AAet al., 2014,

    Neural Structures within Human Meniscofemoral Ligaments: A Cadaveric Study.

    , ISRN Anat, Vol: 2014

    Aim. To investigate the existence of neural structures within the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) of the human knee. Methods. The MFLs from 8 human cadaveric knees were harvested. 5 μm sections were H&E-stained and examined under light microscopy. The harvested ligaments were then stained using an S100 monoclonal antibody utilising the ABC technique to detect neural components. Further examination was performed on 60-80 nm sections under electron microscopy. Results. Of the 8 knees, 6 were suitable for examination. From these both MFLs existed in 3, only anterior MFLs were present in 2, and an isolated posterior MFL existed in 1. Out of the 9 MFLs, 4 demonstrated neural structures on light and electron microscopy and this was confirmed with S100 staining. The ultrastructure of these neural components was morphologically similar to mechanoreceptors. Conclusion. Neural structures are present in MFLs near to their meniscal attachments. It is likely that the meniscofemoral ligaments contribute not only as passive secondary restraints to posterior draw but more importantly to proprioception and may therefore play an active role in providing a neurosensory feedback loop. This may be particularly important when the primary restraint has reduced function as in the posterior cruciate ligament-deficient human knee.

    Prinold JA, Bull AM, 2014,

    Scaling and kinematics optimisation of the scapula and thorax in upper limb musculoskeletal models.

    , J Biomech, Vol: 47, Pages: 2813-2819

    Accurate representation of individual scapula kinematics and subject geometries is vital in musculoskeletal models applied to upper limb pathology and performance. In applying individual kinematics to a model's cadaveric geometry, model constraints are commonly prescriptive. These rely on thorax scaling to effectively define the scapula's path but do not consider the area underneath the scapula in scaling, and assume a fixed conoid ligament length. These constraints may not allow continuous solutions or close agreement with directly measured kinematics. A novel method is presented to scale the thorax based on palpated scapula landmarks. The scapula and clavicle kinematics are optimised with the constraint that the scapula medial border does not penetrate the thorax. Conoid ligament length is not used as a constraint. This method is simulated in the UK National Shoulder Model and compared to four other methods, including the standard technique, during three pull-up techniques (n=11). These are high-performance activities covering a large range of motion. Model solutions without substantial jumps in the joint kinematics data were improved from 23% of trials with the standard method, to 100% of trials with the new method. Agreement with measured kinematics was significantly improved (more than 10° closer at p<0.001) when compared to standard methods. The removal of the conoid ligament constraint and the novel thorax scaling correction factor were shown to be key. Separation of the medial border of the scapula from the thorax was large, although this may be physiologically correct due to the high loads and high arm elevation angles.

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