Self-guided (Instructionist) learning activities suggested:

Steps (drag & drop)

In this interaction the learner is presented with a series of steps which must be put together in the right order. The learner has to Drag & Drop different sections or objects on the screen in order to get the right steps. The learner receives feedback if the steps are not ordered correctly.

If the steps not only represent a specific sequence but the steps are also associated with a common entity, the use of a puzzle interaction may be useful in this case showing the learner how all the parts are interrelated.

Example

Before analysing the clinical incidence, let’s have an insight into the patient’s journey from the clinic to the operating theatre. Place the events displayed on the right in the correct order of occurrence by dragging and dropping the events to the empty boxes on the timeline.

Drag & Drop

Timeline

In this interaction the learner is invited to discover the events of a timeline. In this type of activity the learner may be physically passive yet mentally active. The activity presents information to the learner and the learner at the same time takes some actions to extract and comprehend knowledge from that information (Horton, 2006). Make sure self-assessment questions are used before and/or after this type of activity to allow the learner remember, reinforce and reflect on the knowledge presented.

Online example

Timeline

Matching (drag & drop)

In this interaction the learner is presented with a series of statements or images which must match the presented information.  The learner has to drag and drop the sections or objects on the screen in order to get the right matches. The learner receives feedback if he/she does not order the steps correctly.

Example

Drag and drop each error statement to the correct error type on the diagram.

Drag & Drop

Case scenario (steps)

In this interaction the learner is presented with a scenario following a series of steps. The learner then reacts by answering multiple options that may occur in real life and receive descriptive feedback based on his/her selection. In case studies, think carefully about the answers given to the learner since they direct learner’s searches and control the discoveries they are likely to achieve on their own.

Example

Let’s look now at a scenario in the theatre. Click the play button to start the scenario.

Case Study

Tabs

In this interaction the learner is presented with a series of tabs which break the content down into sections. The learner is invited to click on the tabs to find out more. In this type of activity the learner may be physically passive yet mentally active. The activity presents information to the learner and the learner at the same time takes some actions to extract and comprehend knowledge from that information (Horton, 2006). Make sure self-assessment questions are used before and/or after this type of activities to allow the learner remember, reinforce and reflect on the knowledge presented.

Online example

Tabs

Spot the problem (hot spot)

In this interaction the learner is invited to spot a mistake or a specific area on an image presented. After allowing the learner explore the interaction and select the hot spot, it is important to provide a summary that drives the learner to the main learning points.

Example

How we manage a patient will depends firstly upon whether it is a primary Pneumothorax, and secondly on its size.

Hot spot

Branching

In this interaction the learner is allowed to choose different options that may lead into different destinations. Feedback is given after each selection has been chosen at the end of the interactivity. Different variables may be allocated to the interactivity. These variables can change depending on the choices made by the learner. For example in a clinical case, the variables: communication skills, ethics and clinical reasoning can be used to display how well or bad the learner is doing in relation to those variables.

Example

Which antibiotic will you start? Select the correct option and click Submit.

Branching

Simulation

In this interaction the learner is presented with a simulated environment in which the learner can safely interact with different variables. The learner interacts with the environment which responds imitating the real world. Simulations work well in areas where the greatest challenge is not only obtaining factual knowledge but applying skills, procedural, conceptual and metacognitive knowledge as well as attitudes in complex and unique situations.

Example

Katie is a patient with Type I Diabetes. She is not a co-operative patient. Your goal is to keep her glucose levels between 4 and 8 for three days. You can use the following tools: Meal, Snack, Alcohol, Short Acting Insulin, Intermediate Acting Insulin, Long Term Insulin and Mixed Insulin. Click on ‘Start’ to begin.

Simulation

Role play

Role-playing is a very powerful technique to teach interpersonal skills and to reveal complex human interactions. Role-playing scenarios help learners experience and be part of events they may not be able to experience in real life.

Example

In this activity, we will simulate the activities involved in obtaining a Landmark Alteration Certificate allowing the renovation of a home in a historic district. Each learner has been assigned one of the roles described in Terms and Notes (William Horton Consulting, Inc.).

Online example

Role Playing

Gaming

Games are representations of real life situations in which scorekeeping play a very important role. Games simulate the thought-process and not just how quickly a physical action can be achieved. It is important to keep focus on the knowledge and skills the game intends to develop (Horton, 2006). The game scenario needs to be clear focusing on: the character(s) the learner needs to play, the character(s) the learner needs to interact with, tools the learner needs to use to accomplish the tasks, the environment or the scene where the game will take place and the challenges the game will offer and the impact different options will have on the narrative.

Word bank

The Word bank interaction is sometimes also called ‘fill in the blank’ interaction. This interaction uses a question text field which interrogates a word bank populated by the tutor. The learner receives feedback depending on the answer given.

This interaction is particularly good at testing factual knowledge.

Case study

In this interaction the learner is presented with a scenario. The learner then reacts by answering multiple options that may occur in real life and receive descriptive feedback based on his/her selection. In case studies, think carefully about the answers given to the learner since they direct learner’s searches and control the discoveries they are likely to achieve on their own.

Demonstration

An interactive demonstration consists of the presentation of a process or phenomenon. The demonstration engages the learner by asking questions, eliciting responses, soliciting further explanations, getting student commitments to various explanations, and helping students reach conclusions on the basis of evidence.

Multiple choice

Multiple choice questions is a form of self-assessment in which respondents are asked to select the best possible answer out of the choices from a list.

Multiple response

Multiple response questions is a form of self-assessment in which respondents are asked to select the best possible answers out of the choices from a list.

Video

Videos can enhance the learning experience if they are used appropriately. Make sure the video-clips used as part of your interactions are short and focused. Use videos when you need to emphasis specific points and there is no other method of doing so.

If a long video is going to be used, make sure interactivity is embedded within it by using self-assessment questions, keeping the learner focused on the main learning objectives.

Video-clips are good at demonstrating how to do, or how not to do something.

Labelled graphic

The labelled graphic interaction allows learners to identify the key elements of an image.

Use the labelled graphic interaction to:

  • Highlight details of a photo 
  • Call out relevant parts of a graphic 
  • Explain features of a piece of equipment screenshot

The labelled graphic interaction allows learners to identify the key elements of an image. Use the labelled graphic interaction to:

  • Highlight details of a photo
  • Call out relevant parts of a graphic

Online example

Hierarchy (circle or pyramid diagram)

This interaction allows users to explore the relationship of items in a circular or pyramid hierarchy.

 Use the pyramid interaction to:

  • Show relationships within a hierarchy
  • Compare levels of importance of related concepts
  • Detail steps in a process or methodology

 Use the circle diagram interaction to:

  • Show related items within a hierarchy
  • Organize concepts into segments and layers
  • Graphically depict a philosophy or approach

Online example (Circle diagram)

Online example (Pyramid diagram)