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  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Fortea-Verdejo M, Bumbaris E, Burgstaller C, Bismarck A, Lee KYet al., 2017,

    Plant fibre-reinforced polymers: where do we stand in terms of tensile properties?

    , International Materials Reviews, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 0950-6608

    © 2017 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and ASM International Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute and ASM InternationalThis article reviews the tensile properties of various plant fibre-reinforced polymers reported in literature. We critically discuss the use of plant fibres as reinforcement for the production of bio-based, renewable or green polymer composites. The tensile properties of these composites are compared against various (non-)renewable engineering/commodity polymers and commercially available randomly oriented glass fibre-reinforced polymers (GFRP). Composites containing random short plant fibres possess similar properties to randomly oriented GFRP at a lower overall part weight. Unidirectional plant fibre-reinforced polymers offer better performance than randomly oriented GFRP and have the potential to be adapted in applications requiring better mechanical performance, especially in applications where the use of costly synthetic fibres might be less attractive. Plant fibres can also be regarded as fillers to replace the more expensive polymers and improve the green credentials of the final composite parts. These features may motivate the industry to move towards plant fibre-based products.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Hervy M, Santmarti A, Lahtinen P, Tammelin T, Lee KYet al., 2017,

    Sample geometry dependency on the measured tensile properties of cellulose nanopapers

    , Materials and Design, Vol: 121, Pages: 421-429, ISSN: 0264-1275

    © 2017 The Author(s)Miniaturised test specimens are often used for the tensile testing of cellulose nanopapers as there are currently no standardised test geometries to evaluate their tensile properties. In this work, we report the influence of test specimen geometries on the measured tensile properties of plant-derived cellulose nanofibres (CNF) and microbially synthesised bacterial cellulose (BC) nanopapers. Four test specimen geometries were studied: (i) miniaturised dog bone specimen with 2 mm width, (ii) miniaturised rectangular specimen with 5 mm width, (iii) standard dog bone specimen with 5 mm width and (iv) standard rectangular specimen with 15 mm width. It was found that the tensile moduli of both CNF and BC nanopapers were not significantly influenced by the test specimen geometries if an independent strain measurement system (video extensometer) was employed. The average tensile strength of the cellulose nanopapers is also influenced by test specimen geometries. It was observed that the smaller the test specimen width, the higher the average tensile strength of the cellulose nanopapers. This can be described by the weakest link theory, whereby the probability of defects present in the cellulose nanopapers increases with increasing test specimen width. The Poisson's ratio and fracture resistance of CNF and BC nanopapers are also discussed.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Song W, Barber K, Lee KY, 2017,

    Heat-induced bubble expansion as a route to increase the porosity of foam-templated bio-based macroporous polymers

    , Polymer (United Kingdom), Vol: 118, Pages: 97-106, ISSN: 0032-3861

    © 2017 Elsevier LtdMacroporous polymers were prepared by mechanically frothing a bio-based epoxy resin and hardener mixture to first create air-in-resin liquid foams, followed by curing of these liquid foams. It was found that heating the air-in-resin liquid foams prior to their gelation decreased the viscosity of the resin mixture and increased the pressure of the air bubbles, leading to an isotropic expansion of the air bubbles. This resulted in an increase in the porosity of the resulting foam-templated macroporous polymers from 71% to 85%. Correspondingly, the compressive moduli (E) and strengths (σ) of the foam-templated macroporous polymers decreased from 231 MPa and 5.9 MPa, respectively, to 58 MPa and 1.9 MPa, respectively. This decrease is attributed to an increase in the porosity and pore throat frequency of the foam-templated macroporous polymers when heat was applied to the liquid foams. The deformation of the pores based on in situ SEM micro-compression test of the fabricated foam-templated macroporous polymers is also discussed.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Ferguson A, Khan U, Walsh M, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Coleman JN, Bergin SDet al., 2016,

    Understanding the Dispersion and Assembly of Bacterial Cellulose in Organic Solvents

    , BIOMACROMOLECULES, Vol: 17, Pages: 1845-1853, ISSN: 1525-7797
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Fortea-Verdejo M, Lee K-Y, Zimmermann T, Bismarck Aet al., 2016,

    Upgrading flax nonwovens: Nanocellulose as binder to produce rigid and robust flax fibre preforms

    , COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING, Vol: 83, Pages: 63-71, ISSN: 1359-835X
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee KY, Bismarck A, 2016,

    Single step functionalisation of celluloses with differing degrees of reactivity as a route for in-situ production of all-cellulose nanocomposites

    , ECCM 2016 - Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials

    © 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.A method of manufacturing all-cellulose nanocomposites using a single step functionalisation of two different celluloses with differing reactivities is presented. All-cellulose nanocomposites are produced by esterification of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in pyridine with hexanoic acid in the presence of bacterial cellulose (BC) followed by solvent removal. Neat MCC is more susceptible to esterification. As a result, neat MCC undergoes severe bulk modification, turning into a toluene-soluble cellulose hexanoate (C6-MCC) whilst BC undergoes surface-only modification. The solution casted C6-MCC films have a tensile modulus and strength of 0.99 GPa and 23.1 MPa, respectively. The presence of 5 wt.-% BC in C6-MCC leads to an increase in tensile modulus and strength of the resulting nanocomposites to 1.42 GPa and 28.4 MPa, respectively.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Shamsuddin S-R, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2016,

    Ductile unidirectional continuous rayon fibre-reinforced hierarchical composites

    , COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING, Vol: 90, Pages: 633-641, ISSN: 1359-835X
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Hervy M, Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Lee KYet al., 2015,

    Life cycle assessment of nanocellulose-reinforced advanced fibre composites

    , Composites Science and Technology, Vol: 118, Pages: 154-162, ISSN: 0266-3538

    © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.The research and development of nanocellulose-reinforced polymer composites have dramatically increased in recent years due to the possibility of exploiting the high tensile stiffness and strength of nanocellulose. In the work, the environmental impact of bacterial cellulose (BC)- and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). Neat polylactide (PLA) and 30 wt.-% randomly oriented glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene (GF/PP) composites were used as benchmark materials for comparison. Our cradle-to-gate LCA showed that BC- and NFC-reinforced epoxy composites have higher global warming potential (GWP) and abiotic depletion potential of fossil fuels (ADf) compared to neat PLA and GF/PP even though the specific tensile moduli of the nanocellulose-reinforced epoxy composites were higher than neat PLA and GF/PP. However, when the use phase and the end-of-life of nanocellulose-reinforced epoxy composites were considered, the "green credentials" of nanocellulose-reinforced epoxy composites were comparable to that of neat PLA and GF/PP composites. Our life cycle scenario analysis further showed that the cradle-to-grave GWP and ADf of BC- and NFC-reinforced epoxy composites could be lower than neat PLA when the composites contains more than 60 vol.-% nanocellulose. This suggests that nanocellulose-reinforced epoxy composites with high nanocellulose loading is desirable to produce materials with "greener credentials" than the best performing commercially available bio-derived polymers.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Mautner A, Lee K-Y, Tammelin T, Mathew AP, Nedoma AJ, Li K, Bismarck Aet al., 2015,

    Cellulose nanopapers as tight aqueous ultra-filtration membranes

    , REACTIVE & FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, Vol: 86, Pages: 209-214, ISSN: 1381-5148
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Quero F, Coveney A, Lewandowska AE, Richardson RM, Díaz-Calderón P, Lee KY, Eichhorn SJ, Alam MA, Enrione Jet al., 2015,

    Stress Transfer Quantification in Gelatin-Matrix Natural Composites with Tunable Optical Properties.

    , Biomacromolecules, Vol: 16, Pages: 1784-1793

    This work reports on the preparation and characterization of natural composite materials prepared from bacterial cellulose (BC) incorporated into a gelatin matrix. Composite morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy and 2D Raman imaging revealing an inhomogeneous dispersion of BC within the gelatin matrix. The composite materials showed controllable degrees of transparency to visible light and opacity to UV light depending on BC weight fraction. By adding a 10 wt % fraction of BC in gelatin, visible (λ = 550 nm) and UV (λ = 350 nm) transmittances were found to decrease by ∼35 and 40%, respectively. Additionally, stress transfer occurring between the gelatin and BC fibrils was quantified using Raman spectroscopy. This is the first report for a gelatin-matrix composite containing cellulose. As a function of strain, two distinct domains, both showing linear relationships, were observed for which an average initial shift rate with respect to strain of -0.63 ± 0.2 cm(-1)%(-1) was observed, followed by an average shift rate of -0.25 ± 0.03 cm(-1)%(-1). The average initial Raman band shift rate value corresponds to an average effective Young's modulus of 39 ± 13 GPa and 73 ± 25 GPa, respectively, for either a 2D and 3D network of BC fibrils embedded in the gelatin matrix. As a function of stress, a linear relationship was observed with a Raman band shift rate of -27 ± 3 cm(-1)GPa(-1). The potential use of these composite materials as a UV blocking food coating is discussed.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Blaker JJ, Lee K-Y, Walters M, Drouet M, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Aligned unidirectional PLA/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite fibre reinforced PDLLA composites

    , Reactive & Functional Polymers, Vol: 85, Pages: 185-192, ISSN: 1381-5148

    In an effort to enhance the properties of polylactide (PLA), we have developed melt-spinning techniques to produce both PLA/nanocellulose composite fibres, and a method akin to layered filament winding followed by compression moulding to produce self-reinforced PLA/nanocellulose composites. Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibres were filled with 2 wt.% neat and modified bacterial cellulose (BC) in an effort to improve the tensile properties over neat PLA fibres. BC increased the viscosity of the polymer melt and reduced the draw-ratio of the fibres, resulting in increased fibre diameters. Nonetheless, strain induced chain orientation due to melt spinning led to PLLA fibres with enhanced tensile modulus (6 GPa) and strength (127 MPa), over monolithic PLLA, previously measured at 1.3 GPa and 61 MPa, respectively. The presence of BC also enhanced the nucleation and growth of crystals in PLA. We further produced PLA fibres with 7 wt.% cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which is higher than the percolation threshold (equivalent to 6 vol.%). These fibres were spun in multiple, alternating controlled layers onto spools, and subsequently compression moulded to produce unidirectional self-reinforced PLA composites consisting of 60 vol.% PLLA fibres reinforced with 7 wt.% CNC in a matrix of amorphous PDLLA, which itself contained 7 wt.% of CNC. We observed improvements in viscoelastic properties of up to 175% in terms of storage moduli in bending. Furthermore, strains to failure for PLLA fibre reinforced PDLLA were recorded at 17%.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lau THM, Wong LLC, Lee K-Y, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Tailored for simplicity: creating high porosity, high performance bio-based macroporous polymers from foam templates

    , GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 16, Pages: 1931-1940, ISSN: 1463-9262
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Aitomaki Y, Berglund LA, Oksman K, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    On the use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 105, Pages: 15-27, ISSN: 0266-3538
  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2014,

    Handbook of Green Materials (volume 3): Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications

    , Handbook of Green Materials: Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications (in 4 Volumes), Editors: Oksman, Mathew, Bismarck, ISBN: 9789814566452
  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2014,

    Chemical surface modification and adhesion of nanocellulose

    , Handbook of Green Materials: Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications (in 4 Volumes), Editors: Oksman, Mathew, Bismarck, ISBN: 9789814566452
  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2014,

    Advanced bacterial cellulose composites

    , Handbook of Green Materials: Processing Technologies, Properties and Applications (in 4 Volumes), Editors: Oksman, Mathew, Bismarck, ISBN: 9789814566452
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Blaker JJ, Heng JYY, Murakami R, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    pH-triggered phase inversion and separation of hydrophobised bacterial cellulose stabilised Pickering emulsions

    , REACTIVE & FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, Vol: 85, Pages: 208-213, ISSN: 1381-5148
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Blaker JJ, Murakami R, Heng JYY, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Phase Behavior of Medium and High Internal Phase Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized Solely by Hydrophobized Bacterial Cellulose Nanofibrils

    , LANGMUIR, Vol: 30, Pages: 452-460, ISSN: 0743-7463
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Buldum G, Mantalaris A, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    More Than Meets the Eye in Bacterial Cellulose: Biosynthesis, Bioprocessing, and Applications in Advanced Fiber Composites

    , MACROMOLECULAR BIOSCIENCE, Vol: 14, Pages: 10-32, ISSN: 1616-5187
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Shamsuddin SR, Fortea-Verdejo M, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Manufacturing Of Robust Natural Fiber Preforms Utilizing Bacterial Cellulose as Binder

    , Jove-Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN: 1940-087X
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Mautner A, Lee K-Y, Lahtinen P, Hakalahti M, Tammelin T, Li K, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Nanopapers for organic solvent nanofiltration

    , CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 50, Pages: 5778-5781, ISSN: 1359-7345
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Montrikittiphant T, Tang M, Lee K-Y, Williams CK, Bismarck Aet al., 2014,

    Bacterial Cellulose Nanopaper as Reinforcement for Polylactide Composites: Renewable Thermoplastic NanoPaPreg

    , MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 35, Pages: 1640-1645, ISSN: 1022-1336
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Yata T, Lee K-Y, Dharakul T, Songsivilai S, Bismarck A, Mintz PJ, Hajitou Aet al., 2014,

    Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    , MOLECULAR THERAPY-NUCLEIC ACIDS, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2162-2531
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Qian H, Tay FH, Blaker JJ, Kazarian SG, Bismarck Aet al., 2013,

    Bacterial cellulose as source for activated nanosized carbon for electric double layer capacitors

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 48, Pages: 367-376, ISSN: 0022-2461
  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Lee KY, Bismarck A, 2013,

    Creating hierarchical structures in cellulosic fibre reinforced polymer composites for advanced performance

    , Natural Fibre Composites: Materials, Processes and Applications, Pages: 84-102, ISBN: 9780857095244

    Interest in greener materials has re-energised the utilisation of natural fibres, but now as reinforcement for renewable polymers. However, such bio-based composites often fail to deliver in terms of mechanical performance. This chapter discusses nature-inspired hierarchical composites and evaluates the potential of these materials to create a new generation of advanced renewable composite materials. Three strategies for creating hierarchical structures are explored: surface microfibrillation of (ligno)cellulosic fibres; dispersing microfibrillated cellulose within the matrix of conventional fibre reinforced composites; and attaching nano-sized bacterial cellulose onto natural fibres. The mechanical performance of the resulting hierarchical (nano)composites reported so far is discussed. By creating hierarchical structures within composites, we could potentially bridge the property performance gap between renewable and petroleum-derived materials for commercial use. © 2014 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Seydibeyoglu MO, Misra M, Mohanty A, Blaker JJ, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, Kazemizadeh Met al., 2013,

    Green polyurethane nanocomposites from soy polyol and bacterial cellulose

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 48, Pages: 2167-2175, ISSN: 0022-2461
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Tang M, Purcell M, Steele JAM, Lee K-Y, McCullen S, Shakesheff KM, Bismarck A, Stevens MM, Howdle SM, Williams CKet al., 2013,

    Porous Copolymers of epsilon-Caprolactone as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    , MACROMOLECULES, Vol: 46, Pages: 8136-8143, ISSN: 0024-9297
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Bismarck A, Burgstaller C, Lee KY, Madsen B, Muessig J, Santulli C, Scarponi Cet al., 2012,

    Recent Progress in Natural Fibre Composites: Selected Papers from the 3rd International Conference on Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for Industrial Applications, Ecocomp 2011 and BEPS 2011

    , JOURNAL OF BIOBASED MATERIALS AND BIOENERGY, Vol: 6, Pages: 343-345, ISSN: 1556-6560
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Ege D, Lee K, Bismarck A, Best S, Cameron Ret al., 2012,

    Evaluation of the degradation properties of carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite-poly(ε-caprolactone) composites

    , Key Engineering Materials, Vol: 493-494, Pages: 120-125, ISSN: 1013-9826

    The aim of this work is to produce and characterise carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) reinforced polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites with a controlled degradation rate in order to match the rate of bone in-growth. The ideal degradation time for this purpose is estimated to be around 5-6 months however, in vivo, PCL degrades over a period of 2 to 3 years. It has been reported that NaOH surface treatment can accelerate the degradation of PCL [1-3]. In order to further modify the degradation rate of PCL, the effects of the incorporation of different volume fractions of CHA in samples surface treated with NaOH was investigated. CHA was produced by wet chemical synthesis. Samples comprising 8, 19, 25 wt% uncalcined CHA-PCL composites were produced by twin screw extrusion which were then injection moulded into cylinders. In order to accelerate the degradation rate of PCL, it was surface treated with 5 M NaOH for 3 days prior to PBS studies. The degradation profile was examined by % weight loss and % water uptake measurements. NaOH treatment was observed to erode the polymer surface and the polymer-filler interface. On subsequently degrading the pre-treated samples in PBS, it was observed that with increasing fraction of CHA, the degradation rate in PBS of the sample increased. Up to 8 wt % CHA filler there appeared to be little change in the degradation properties of the NaOH treated samples with the onset occurring after 60 days. However there was a marked acceleration of degradation for samples containing 19 wt% when degradation appeared to occur immediately. In conclusion, the addition of CHA significantly affects the behaviour of PCL. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  • PATENT
    Lee K-Y, Bharadia P, Bismarck A, 2012,

    Nanocellulose surface coated support material

    , US9193130
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Bharadia P, Blaker JJ, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Short sisal fibre reinforced bacterial cellulose polylactide nanocomposites using hairy sisal fibres as reinforcement

    , COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING, Vol: 43, Pages: 2065-2074, ISSN: 1359-835X
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2012,

    Susceptibility of never-dried and freeze-dried bacterial cellulose towards esterification with organic acid

    , CELLULOSE, Vol: 19, Pages: 891-900, ISSN: 0969-0239
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Ho KKC, Schlufter K, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Hierarchical composites reinforced with robust short sisal fibre preforms utilising bacterial cellulose as binder

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 72, Pages: 1479-1486, ISSN: 0266-3538
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Tammelin T, Schulfter K, Kiiskinen H, Samela J, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    High Performance Cellulose Nanocomposites: Comparing the Reinforcing Ability of Bacterial Cellulose and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    , ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 4, Pages: 4078-4086, ISSN: 1944-8244
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Tang M, Williams CK, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Carbohydrate derived copoly(lactide) as the compatibilizer for bacterial cellulose reinforced polylactide nanocomposites

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 72, Pages: 1646-1650, ISSN: 0266-3538
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Quero F, Eichhorn SJ, Nogi M, Yano H, Lee K-Y, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Interfaces in Cross-Linked and Grafted Bacterial Cellulose/Poly(Lactic Acid) Resin Composites

    , JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 20, Pages: 916-925, ISSN: 1566-2543
  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Shamsuddin S-R, Ho KKC, Lee K-Y, Hodgkinson JM, Bismarck Aet al., 2012,

    Carbon fibres: Properties, testing and analysis

    , Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites, 5 Volume Set, Editors: Nicolais, Borzacchiello, Lee, Publisher: Wiley, ISBN: 9780470128282

    Written by prominent international experts from industry and academia, the Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites, Second Edition presents over 260 new and revised articles addressing the new technological advances in properties, processing, ...

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Blaker JJ, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, 2011,

    Hierarchical Composites Made Entirely from Renewable Resources

    , JOURNAL OF BIOBASED MATERIALS AND BIOENERGY, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1556-6560
  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Lee K-Y, Delille A, Bismarck A, 2011,

    Greener surface treatments of natural fiber reinforcements for use in the production of composite materials

    , Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites, Editors: Kalia, Kaith, Kaur, Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media, ISBN: 9783642173707

    This handbook deals with cellulose fibers and nano-fibers and covers the latest advances in bio- and nano- polymer composite materials.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Quero F, Blaker JJ, Hill CAS, Eichhorn SJ, Bismarck Aet al., 2011,

    Surface only modification of bacterial cellulose nanofibres with organic acids

    , CELLULOSE, Vol: 18, Pages: 595-605, ISSN: 0969-0239
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Wong LLC, Blaker JJ, Hodgkinson JM, Bismarck Aet al., 2011,

    Bio-based macroporous polymer nanocomposites made by mechanical frothing of acrylated epoxidised soybean oil

    , GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 13, Pages: 3117-3123, ISSN: 1463-9262
  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Lee KY, Bismarck A, 2011,

    Assessing the moisture uptake behavior of natural fibres

    , Interface Engineering of Natural Fibre Composites for Maximum Performance, Pages: 275-288, ISBN: 9781845697426

    Various methods for the determination of moisture uptake and water sorption behaviour of natural fibres are discussed; namely through simple weight gain measurement and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS), respectively. Simple weight gain measurement provides the equilibrium moisture content at a specified relative humidity. DVS, on the other hand, provides water sorption/desorption behaviour of natural fibres. Not only can the water sorption behaviour of natural fibres be determined, water sorption hysteresis can also be studied. A novel method of determining the accessible hydroxyl groups utilising heavy water using DVS apparatus was also discussed. This technique could potentially be applied to study the water sorption kinetics and mechanism of natural fibres. © 2011 Woodhead Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Quero F, Nogi M, Lee K-Y, Vanden Poel G, Bismarck A, Mantalaris A, Yano H, Eichhorn SJet al., 2011,

    Cross-Linked Bacterial Cellulose Networks Using Glyoxalization

    , ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 3, Pages: 490-499, ISSN: 1944-8244
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Blaker JJ, Lee K-Y, Mantalaris A, Bismarck Aet al., 2010,

    Ice-microsphere templating to produce highly porous nanocomposite PLA matrix scaffolds with pores selectively lined by bacterial cellulose nano-whiskers

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 70, Pages: 1879-1888, ISSN: 0266-3538
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Chrzanowski W, Abou Neel EA, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, Young AM, Hart AD, Dalby MJ, Knowles JCet al., 2010,

    Tailoring Cell Behavior on Polymers by the Incorporation of Titanium Doped Phosphate Glass Filler

    , ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Vol: 12, Pages: B298-B308, ISSN: 1438-1656
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Blaker JJ, Lee K-Y, Li X, Menner A, Bismarck Aet al., 2009,

    Renewable nanocomposite polymer foams synthesized from Pickering emulsion templates

    , GREEN CHEMISTRY, Vol: 11, Pages: 1321-1326, ISSN: 1463-9262
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lee K-Y, Blaker JJ, Bismarck A, 2009,

    Surface functionalisation of bacterial cellulose as the route to produce green polylactide nanocomposites with improved properties

    , COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 69, Pages: 2724-2733, ISSN: 0266-3538

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